Saturday, January 16, 2021

Who gains from this? Anti-vaxxers making up their justification? Other vaccine makers?

Hackers leaked altered Pfizer data to sabotage trust in vaccines

Sergiu Gatlan reports:

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) today revealed that some of the stolen Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine candidate data was doctored by threat actors before being leaked online with the end goal of undermining the public’s trust in COVID-19 vaccines.
EMA is the decentralized agency that reviews and approves COVID-19 vaccines in the European Union, and the agency that evaluates, monitors, and supervises any new medicines introduced to the EU.

Read more on BleepingComputer.

Should we make Smartwatches mandatory?

Smartwatches can help detect COVID-19 days before symptoms appear

Devices like the Apple Watch, Garmin and Fitbit watches can predict whether an individual is positive for COVID-19 even before they are symptomatic or the virus is detectable by tests, according to studies from leading medical and academic institutions, including Mount Sinai Health System in New York and Stanford University in California. Experts say wearable technology could play a vital role in stemming the pandemic and other communicable diseases.

One man’s ‘feature’ is another man’s downfall?

Bumble Turns Off Politics Filter Amid Hunt for Capitol Rioters

Bumble, a widely popular dating app, has disabled the feature that lets users search for dates according to political viewpoint. This comes after users took advantage of this feature to find and report rioters who stormed Capitol Hill.

Following the pro-Trump protests at Capitol Hill, Bumble users reported finding a number of potential dates who bragged about attending the Washington D.C. riots on the app.

If you clean up your act now, can you avoid these lawsuits?

New York Could Become the Next Hotbed of Class Action Litigation Over Biometric Privacy

Joseph Lazzarotti of JacksonLewis writes:

Dubbed the “Biometric Privacy Act,” New York Assembly Bill 27 (“BPA”) is virtually identical to the Biometric Information Privacy Act in Illinois, 740 ILCS 14 et seq. (BIPA). Enacted in 2008, BIPA only recently triggered thousands of class actions in Illinois. If the BPA is enacted in New York, it likely will not take as long for litigation to begin under the new privacy law. Interestingly, late last year, Governor Cuomo signed AB A6787D which, among other things, prohibited the use of biometric identifying technology in schools at least until July 1, 2022.
BPA contains a private right of action. If it’s enacted, well, it will likely result in a spurt of new litigation.

Read more on Workplace Privacy, Data Management & Sec

Is this going to become a “thing?” Too much for the CIO to handle?

HHS Names First Ever Chief Artificial Intelligence Officer

“AI is playing and will continue to play a significant role in overall technology modernization,” HHS Chief Information Officer Perryn Ashmore told Nextgov via email Thursday. “As such, I have named Oki Mek the Chief Artificial Intelligence Officer (CAIO) for the Office of the Chief Information Officer.”

Is “clearly overlooked” an oxymoron?

Rush to Use Artificial Intelligence Creates Privacy Headaches for GCs

AI is a technology that can do lots of good. But in that rush, a lot of the liabilities and risks have been very clearly overlooked," Andrew Burt, managing partner at, said.

According to a November 2020 study published by McKinsey & Co., 50% of 2,395 respondents indicated that at least one function in their corporations has incorporated artificial intelligence or machine learning. However, the rush to implement artificial intelligence and machine learning will lead to many legal departments finding ways to solve problems that arise in the technology’s life cycle in 2021, experts say.

The liabilities that corporations and their legal departments are now realizing that are associated with artificial intelligence and machine learning span the technology’s entire life cycle. The only real solution is to create a governance plan before the technology is implemented.

… Sarah Pearce, a partner at Paul Hastings in London and co-chair of the firm’s artificial intelligence practice group, said issues such as data privacy and security and ethics will be something that in-house counsel have to consider through the AI life cycle.

“This is not just privacy. This is privacy as it pertains to data collection and extraction; model training and deployment; and where prediction data is stored,” Burt added.

… Governance will be critical to avoid long-term issues with artificial intelligence and machine learning technology. The recognition of this fact has led to the development of a new in-house legal role for AI, Burt said.

“Part of that is hiring an in-house lawyer who can monitor and mitigate the liabilities associated with the AI the organization is adopting,” Burt said. “It’s kind of like what happened with privacy 10 or so years ago. Where you’d have privacy counsel or privacy officers that would be embedded in the legal department.”

Friday, January 15, 2021

E-detective is one thing, e-vigilante is another.

A guide to being an ethical online investigator

The Capitol riot has inspired a new army of amateur sleuths who want to help identify protesters. But it’s an ethically fraught hobby.

(Related) Do you want the bad guys to know where the only witness against them lives?

Amazon’s Ring Neighbors app exposed users’ precise locations and home addresses

Zack Whittaker reports:

A security flaw in Ring’s Neighbors app was exposing the precise locations and home addresses of users who had posted to the app.
Ring, the video doorbell and home security startup acquired by Amazon for $1 billion, launched Neighbors in 2018 as a breakaway feature in its own standalone app. Neighbors is one of several neighborhood watch apps, like Nextdoor and Citizen, that lets users anonymously alert nearby residents to crime and public-safety issues.
While users’ posts are public, the app doesn’t display names or precise locations — though most include video taken by Ring doorbells and security cameras. The bug made it possible to retrieve the location data on users who posted to the app, including those who are reporting crimes.

Read more on TechCrunch.

As we’ve noticed…

Shashua-Friedman Chat: AI Is Both ‘Miraculous’ and ‘Dangerous’

In an often jovial chat about the future of artificial intelligence (AI), presented Wednesday at the “virtual” 2021 CES, Mobileye CEO Amnon Shashua and New York Times pundit Thomas Friedman reached agreement that before “super-intelligent” computers get smarter than people, the machines must somehow be infused with some of the “common sense” values of their flesh-and-blood inventors.

Perspective. A microphone by any other name...

Future Apple Devices Could Recognize Your Voice, No Mic Required

That's according to a newly published Apple patent application. Bearing the wordy (and therefore distinctly un-Apple) title "Self-Mixing Interferometry Sensors Used to Sense Vibration of a Structural or Housing Component Defining an Exterior Surface of a Device," the application describes how a future Siri device could be able to detect certain voices and their location, based entirely on vibrations.

Aimed at middle and high school students, it’s still a good starting point.

New Guide to Help Middle and High School Students Conduct Research with Library Resources

Teaching with the Library of Congress – This post is by Kaleena Black of the Library of Congress. “The research process can be fun and rewarding, but it can also present some challenges. For some students, the idea of research might not immediately bring to mind an exciting activity, filled with intrigue, suspense, and joy. Many students, and some adults, too, who are interested in deepening their understanding on a topic and are curious about learning more about an idea or issue, don’t consider themselves “researchers.” And even students who are committed to finding information might not be sure how to begin their research journey. To help support young people in their personal and academic research endeavors, Library educators and librarians teamed up to develop an online research guide for middle and high school students. A variety of Research Guides have been designed by Library of Congress specialists to help researchers navigate the Library’s analog and digital collections and find resources. Currently, there are hundreds of such guides, covering more than 70 topics that relate to the arts, science, history, social and cultural studies, and more. With a focus on helping students locate and use digitized resources, this new guide offers tips on finding research inspiration, definitions for primary and secondary sources (with detailed examples for each), strategies for searching primary and secondary sources on the Library’s website and beyond, and suggestions on citing resources appropriately. There is also a feature that allows students to contact a Library of Congress reference specialist if they’re feeling stuck or need extra help in the course of their research…”

Thursday, January 14, 2021

A summary for my Computer Security students.

17 types of Trojans and how to defend against them

Trojan malware comes in many different types, but all require a user action to initiate.

Why is government so bad at projects like these? " A billion here, a billion there, and pretty soon you're talking real money"

Pentagon’s $2 Billion Cybersecurity Project Slowed by Flaws

The Defense Department has halted deployment on its classified networks of a $2 billion cybersecurity project intended to detect intrusions and prevent attacks because of poor test results, according to the Pentagon’s testing office.

The effort to consolidate hundreds of U.S.-based and global systems continues to be fielded to non-classified networks even though test assessments since 2016 have continually shown it’s “unable to help network defenders protect DoD component networks against operationally realistic cyber attacks,” testing chief Robert Behler wrote in his latest criticism of the project known as the Joint Regional Security Stack.

Curious. Is this where the ‘Trump gang’ stayed during their visit to the Capital?

Airbnb canceling and blocking DC reservations during inauguration week

Airbnb is canceling and blocking future reservations in the Washington, D.C., metro area during the week of President-elect Joe Biden’s inauguration, the company said Wednesday.

Guests who had reserved a place will be refunded in full, Airbnb said. It will also reimburse the hosts with the money that would have been earned from the canceled reservations.

Someone is watching but do enough people care?

EPIC urges DHS to Suspend New Counterintelligence Records System


EPIC submitted comments to the Department of Homeland Security in response to a system of records notice and proposed exemptions from Privacy Act requirements for a new counterintelligence records system. DHS’s proposed records system would permit nearly limitless collection of sensitive personal information and unchecked disclosure of that information to state, local and international agencies, and to private companies. DHS’s proposed exemptions would eliminate all individual rights under the Privacy Act nd exempt DHS from basic Privacy Act requirements, including limiting data collection to ecessary information. EPIC recently insisted that DHS rescind a proposed expansion of he use of biometrics, including facial recognition, across the agency.

What can be done, will be done. (We can, therefore we must)

Surveillance group exposes disturbing Huawei patent for AI-powered Uighur detection

A Huawei patent that mentions AI-powered identification of Uighur people and other ethnic groups has been discovered.

The patent was exposed by video surveillance research group IPVM, the same organization that had previously spotted references to an AI “Uighur alarm” on Huawei‘s website, as well as evidence that Alibaba had offered “Uighur-detection-as-a-service.

IPVM also recently found 12 government projects from the last few years that mandate Uighur analytics across the country. These show that the persecution of the Muslim minority group spreads way beyond the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in north-western China.

Better. Is there a ‘best?’

Ring Doorbells Now Support End-to-End Encryption

From a privacy standpoint, end-to-end encryption is a massive step forward.

Perhaps most importantly, Ring will not be able to hand over footage to law officials, should they come calling.

By default, Ring already encrypts videos when they are uploaded to the cloud (in transit) and stored on Ring’s servers (at rest). With End-to-End Encryption, customer videos are further secured with an additional lock, which can only be unlocked by a key that is stored on the customer’s enrolled mobile device, designed so that only the customer can decrypt and view recordings on their enrolled device.

This is a can of worms we have to deal with. I’m not sure this the entire solution.

How to Hold Social Media Accountable for Undermining Democracy

Harvard Business Review:The problem with social media isn’t just what users post — it’s what the platforms decide to do with that content. Far from being neutral, social media companies are constantly making decisions about which content to amplify, elevate, and suggest to other users. Given their business model, which promotes scale above all, they’ve often actively amplified extreme, divisive content — including dangerous conspiracy theories and misinformation. It’s time for regulators to step in. A good place to start would be clarifying who should benefit from Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which has been vastly over-interpreted to provide blanket immunity to all internet companies — or “internet intermediaries” — for any third-party content they host. Specifically, it’s time to redefine what an “internet intermediary” means and create a more accurate category to reflect what these companies truly are, such as “digital curators” whose algorithms decide what content to boost, what to amplify, how to curate our content…”


Poland plans to make censoring of social media accounts illegal

Algorithms or the owners of corporate giants should not decide which views are right and which are not,” wrote the prime minister, Mateusz Morawiecki, on Facebook earlier this week, without directly mentioning Trump. “There can be no consent to censorship.”

Morawiecki indirectly compared social media companies taking decisions to remove accounts with Poland’s experience during the communist era.

Censorship of free speech, which is the domain of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, is now returning in the form of a new, commercial mechanism to combat those who think differently,” he wrote.


Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey said the Trump ban reflected ‘a failure’ to police online discourse


Scoop: Google pausing all political ads following Capitol siege

Google informed its advertising partners Wednesday that beginning Jan. 14, its platforms will block all political ads, as well as any related to the Capitol insurrection, "following the unprecedented events of the past week and ahead of the upcoming presidential inauguration," according to an email obtained by Axios.

The world has changed.

The Future of Work Is Through Workforce Ecosystems

Seventy-five percent of respondents to our 2020 global survey of 5,118 managers now view their workforces in terms of both employees and non-employees. Growth in the variety, number, and importance of different types of work arrangements has become a critical factor in how work gets done in (and for) the enterprise.

We see many companies experimenting with ways to manage all types of workers in an integrated fashion. Several novel management practices have emerged across the business landscape. Even so, few — if any — best practices exist for dealing strategically and operationally with this distributed, diverse workforce that crosses internal and external boundaries. Executives seeking an integrated approach to managing an unintegrated workforce are left wanting.

We contend that the best way to conceptualize and address these shifts and related practices is through the lens of workforce ecosystems. We define workforce ecosystem as a structure that consists of interdependent actors, from within the organization and beyond, working to pursue both individual and collective goals.


In a first for the crypto industry, Visa-backed Anchorage gets a federal bank charter

A startup called Anchorage announced on Wednesday that it has become the first cryptocurrency company to receive a federal charter from the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.

Wonky and technical as it sounds, the news is a significant milestone for the burgeoning crypto industry, since it provides a legal green light for big banks and other traditional financial companies to use Anchorage as a means to offer Bitcoin and other digital currencies to their customers.

Wednesday, January 13, 2021

No privacy for that breach investigation report.

Clark Hill Must Produce Cyberattack Report In Malpractice Suit

This looks to be another case where a court shoots downs claims of attorney-client privilege for a breach-related report. And once again, it seems to be a situation in which the firm could not show that the breach litigation was the sole purpose of the report or with whom it was shared.

Read about this case on Law360 (subscription required).

More cans, more worms…

ECJ to consider allowing GDPR complaints in any member state

Until now, privacy complaints against Facebook by any European citizens have had to be referred to Helen Dixon, the Irish Data Protection Commissioner, because Facebook's European headquarters are in Ireland.

However, an ECJ's advocate general has held that, in certain circumstances, any national regulator or national court can handle a data privacy complaint.

So, the ‘Terminator’ is inevitable?


Scientists at the Max Planck Society, a storied European research institution, say humanity will never be able to control a super-intelligent artificial intelligence that could save or destroy humanity.

That’s according to research published last week in the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. The problem, the Max Planck scientists say, is that there’s no way to contain such an algorithm without technology far more advanced than what we can build today.

The team primarily focused on the issue of restraint. If an all-powerful algorithm somehow determined that it ought to hurt people or, in a more “Terminator”-esque fashion, end humanity altogether, how would we prevent it from acting?

AI for the defense! (or, put the blame on the virtual guy…)

Providers Seen as Less Liable for Following AI Recommendations

Potential jurors may believe that physicians who follow artificial intelligence recommendations are less liable for medical malpractice.

Potential jurors may not be strongly opposed to providers’ acceptance of artificial intelligence medical recommendations, indicating that clinicians may be less liable for medical malpractice than commonly believed, a study published in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine revealed.

Clinical decision support tools increasingly rely on artificial intelligence algorithms for diagnosis and treatment recommendations, researchers noted. These personalized recommendations can deviate from standard care, potentially making providers vulnerable to increased liability in medical malpractice.

New AI tools can assist physicians in treatment recommendations and diagnostics, including the interpretation of medical images,” said Kevin Tobia, JD, PhD, assistant professor of law at the Georgetown University Law Center, in Washington, DC.

But if physicians rely on AI tools and things go wrong, how likely is a juror to find them legally liable? Many such cases would never reach a jury, but for one that did, the answer depends on the views and testimony of medical experts and the decision making of lay juries. Our study is the first to focus on that last aspect, studying potential jurors’ attitudes about physicians who use AI.”

How far is too far?

AT&T, Verizon, Comcast halt donations to lawmakers who opposed Biden's election

A large and growing number of tech and telecom companies are freezing their political contributions to Washington lawmakers after President Trump incited a mob that attacked the US Capitol last week.

And some companies – including telecom heavyweights AT&T, Verizon and Comcast – are specifically targeting lawmakers such as Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas) and Sen. Josh Hawley (R-Mo), who opposed President-elect Joe Biden's election victory,

"We will be suspending contributions in 2021 to any member of Congress who voted in favor of objecting to the election results," said Verizon spokesperson Rich Young.

(Related) Cutting of your nose to spite your face?

Uganda orders all social media to be blocked - letter

Uganda ordered internet service providers to block all social media platforms and messaging apps on Tuesday until further notice, a letter from the country’s communications regulator seen by Reuters said.

Users had complained earlier on Tuesday that they were unable to access Facebook and WhatsApp, social media platforms being widely used for campaigning ahead of Thursday’s presidential election in the East African country.

… A source in Uganda’s telecom sector said the government had made clear to executives at telecoms companies that the social media ban was in retaliation for Facebook blocking some pro-government accounts.

The U.S. social media giant said on Monday it had taken down a network in Uganda linked to the country’s ministry of information for using fake and duplicate accounts to post ahead of this week’s election.

Perspective. Another prediction shot full of holes…

Oh, great — Uber and Lyft are actually increasing car ownership in US cities

The platforms were supposed to provide alternatives to private car travel and ultimately decrease car ownership.

However, a recent study suggests that this isn’t entirely the case and ride hailing apps actually increase car ownership, especially in cities that are already dependent on cars.

The researchers aren’t exactly sure why this is occurring, though. They speculate that ride-share app users are becoming drivers themselves, and buying cars to get into the business. Or, people who already own a car, are buying a second vehicle to use exclusively as a ride hail taxi.


News Use Across Social Media Platforms in 2020

About half of U.S. adults (53%) say they get news from social media “often” or “sometimes,” and this use is spread out across a number of different sites, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted Aug. 31-Sept. 7, 2020.

Among 11 social media sites asked about as a regular source of news, Facebook sits at the top, with about a third (36%) of Americans getting news there regularly. YouTube comes next, with 23% of U.S. adults regularly getting news there. Twitter serves as a regular news source for 15% of U.S. adults.

Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Has it come to this?

Following Trump Ban, Facebook Tells Employees to Avoid Wearing Company-Branded Apparel

The temptation is too great.

Broken promises: How Singapore lost trust on contact tracing privacy

… When the two systems were launched, there wasn’t much space for the public to discuss apprehensions: they were seen as necessary to fight the pandemic, and the Singaporean government acted in typical top-down fashion. It did seek to assuage fears, however, by repeatedly assuring Singaporeans that the data collected with such technology would be used only for contact tracing during the pandemic.

Earlier this month, it emerged that the government’s claim was false. The Ministry of Home Affairs confirmed that data could actually be accessed by the police for criminal investigations; the day after this admission, a minister revealed that such data had, in fact, already been used in a murder investigation. It rapidly became clear that despite what ministers had previously said, Singaporean law meant it had been possible for law enforcement to use TraceTogether data all along.

These revelations triggered public anger and criticism, not necessarily because Singaporeans are particularly privacy conscious—in fact, state surveillance is largely normalized in the country—but because people felt they’d been subjected to a bait-and-switch.

Toward ethical facial recognition? Is that possible?

Leading Facial Recognition Technology Provider Corsight AI Appoints Former UK Surveillance Camera Commissioner Tony Porter as Chief Privacy Officer

Corsight AI, a leading facial recognition solution provider, announced today the appointment of the UK's former Surveillance Camera Commissioner Tony Porter as its Chief Privacy Officer. Effective immediately, Porter will be responsible for ensuring the technology is not only legally compliant across international jurisdictions, but also operates to the highest ethical standards.

The move to Corsight AI—the highest NIST-ranked Western-based facial recognition company backed by over 250 patents—will see Porter put his legislative recommendations to the UK government into practice. Porter, an outspoken supporter of the use of facial recognition technology when used within a proper framework of law, regulation and best practice, will help Corsight AI meet strict governance guidelines with regard to its ground-breaking solution.

(Related) Can a “big name” change a culture?

Facebook appoints civil rights vice president amid pressure over racial hatred, violence on Facebook, Instagram

Mainly because I like lists. Only a couple look useful.

These were the top 10 fastest growing websites in 2020

Monday, January 11, 2021

Tools for techies.

What is Signal? The basics of the most secure messaging app.

Known for its end-to-end encryption and independent structure as a non-profit organization run by a foundation — not a big tech company — Signal has previously been the communication method of choice for activists, people in the hacker community, and others concerned about privacy.

Recently, it’s gone mainstream.

Recently, Facebook-owned WhatsApp — which is end-to-end encrypted using Signal’s protocols — began issuing a privacy update notification to users making clear that it is sharing user data with Facebook (which it has actually been doing for years ). That’s led people to look elsewhere for a secure communications app, helped along by Elon Musk’s Jan. 7 tweet which simply stated: “Use Signal.”

We are concerned about this technology, but perhaps we can tolerate it for this purpose.

Use of Clearview AI facial recognition tech spiked as law enforcement seeks to identify Capitol mob

Clearview AI’s CEO says that use of his company’s facial recognition technology among law enforcement spiked 26 percent the day after a mob of pro-Trump rioters attacked the US Capitol. First reported by the New York Times, Hoan Ton-That confirmed to The Verge that Clearview saw a sharp increase in use on January 7th, compared to its usual weekday search volume.

The January 6th attack was broadcast live on cable news, and captured in hundreds of images and live streams that showed the faces of rioters breaching the Capitol building. The FBI and other agencies have asked for the public’s help to identify participants. According to the Times, the Miami Police Department is using Clearview to identify some of the rioters, sending possible matches to the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force. And The Wall Street Journal reported that an Alabama police department was also using Clearview to identify faces in images from the riot and sending information to the FBI.

It’s not just social media, tech seems to be piling on the President…

Stripe Stops Processing Payments for Trump Campaign Website

Stripe Inc. will no longer process payments for President Trump’s campaign website following last week’s riot at the Capitol, according to people familiar with the matter.

The financial-technology company handles card payments for millions of online businesses and e-commerce platforms, including Mr. Trump’s campaign website and online fundraising apparatus. Stripe is cutting off the president’s campaign account for violating its policies against encouraging violence, the people said.


Superspreader Down: How Trump’s Exile from Social Media Alters the Future of Politics, Security, and Public Health

By the numbers, no person in human history has shared more conspiracy theories with a greater number of people than Donald J. Trump. Among all the momentous events of the last week, the silencing of his social-media megaphones is a “yuge” moment not just for American politics but a host of issues from public health to national security.


Everything pundits are getting wrong about this current moment in content moderation: An ongoing list

Since Twitter and Facebook banned Donald Trump and began “purging” QAnon conspiracists, a segment of the chattering class has been making all sorts of wild proclamations about this “precedent-setting” event. As such, I thought I’d set the record straight.

“Deplatforming Trump sets a precedent”

First of all, the only “precedent” set here is that this is indeed the first time a sitting US president has been deplatformed by a tech company. I suppose that if your entire worldview is what happens in the United States, you might be surprised. But were you took outside that narrow lens, you would see that Facebook has booted off Lebanese politicians, Burmese generals, and even other right-wing US politicians…nevermind the millions of others who have been booted by these platforms, often without cause, often while engaging in protected speech under any definition.

No more calling in sick for the Rockies opening day?

AI startup that captures vital signs via phone cameras launches new corporate wellness solution

Many employers, universities and other organizations are expanding health and wellness monitoring amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

One artificial intelligence health startup that offers video-based health tracking sees big opportunities among insurance companies and employers with the growing demand for health monitoring tools. developed an app that analyzes a person’s face to get medical-grade insights such as respiration rate and heart rate variability. The company uses AI and low-end cameras built into phones and laptops for remote vital sign monitoring.

If you look like a Trump and you quack like a Trump, you might be Alec Baldwin.

Outlandish Stanford facial recognition study claims there are links between facial features and political orientation

A paper published today in the journal Scientific Reports by controversial Stanford-affiliated researcher Michal Kosinski claims to show that facial recognition algorithms can expose people’s political views from their social media profiles. Using a dataset of over 1 million Facebook and dating sites profiles from users across Canada, the U.S., and the U.K., Kosinski and coauthors say they trained an algorithm to correctly classify political orientation in 72% of “liberal-conservative” face pairs.

Perspective. Sounds simple, probably isn’t.

3 telltale signs your startup has the potential to be disruptive

… I’ve managed to narrow it down to the three telltale signs below — if you demonstrate these, your startup has the potential to be disruptive.

1. Your product or service is very simple

2. You change users’ behaviors

3. You serve a neglected market with a large number of users

Learning how NOT to fight the last war...

Chief of US Army Futures Command: The service is experiencing a technological evolution

The fundamental character of warfare is changing. Increased globalization and technological evolutions guarantee that if the United States wants to maintain overmatch in all domains — land, sea, air, space and cyberspace — we must adapt and modernize.

As part of this effort, U.S. Army Futures Command was created and placed at the forefront of identifying and implementing cutting-edge and transformational ways to conduct warfare.

… The Army Modernization Strategy revolves heavily around what we call the 3+2 model, (artificial intelligence, robotics and autonomy, along with networks and data) — all critical technological areas of transformation and innovation where we must maintain overmatch.